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Employing specific strategies in Communication Technologies

Analytic Graphic Organizers

Rationale
Analytic Graphic Organizers can be used extensively for mapping ideas in single texts and across multiple texts.  They are also used for organizing writing.  Students benefit from seeing information represented graphically in ways that show the connections between items.

Models/ Examples
Use a sequence organizer to consolidate steps of a multi stage process:


Technical: How to change the blade of a Roland Vinyl Cutter

Conceptual:  The steps in the design process

Use a main idea organizer to map the development of ideas in a reading assignment

Use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast

Technical: Similarities & differences between Photoshop & Illustrator

Conceptual: In journalism, the similarities between a news story and a feature

Anticipation/Reaction Guide

Rationale
Use of anticipation /reaction guides establishes personal connections to reading assignments.  It provides a way to record predictions and to follow up after reading.  By requiring students to record the location of evidence, it supports close reading.

Model/ Example
Use an anticipation reaction guide to support readings on careers and career outlook.  Students often have preconceptions about the world of work that can connect them to informational reading on the subject.

Chapter Preview/Tour

Rationale
Use when introducing new reading material, format, layout that students will be using in class, this strategy provides “what to look for”.    

Model/ Example
Some design texts are structured with a minimum amount of copy, and meaning is frequently built by associating visuals to the text.  Teaching students how to approach this kind of text draws them away from the dangerous misconception that the text is easy because it’s short.

Coding/Comprehension Monitoring

Rationale
Teaching students to systematically mark up texts provides them with a tool to support re-reading and review of materials. 

Model/ Example
When reading examples of persuasive texts, marking the points that the author makes along the way of an argument will allow the students to trace them back and determine the persuasive strategy employed.

Discussion Web
See Analytical Graphic Organizers

Frayer Model

Rationale
The Frayer model allows for a precise definition of a concept that emphasizes its scope. It is helpful in clarifying easily confused or misinterpreted words or concepts.

Model/ Example
Learning the different impacts that kerning, tracking and line length have on the fitting and presentation of prose text is very challenging for students.    The Frayer Model could be used to assist in distinguishing the scope of what each adjustment does and doesn’t do, in order to support rational choices on what adjustments to make when working with copy.

Give One, Get One, Move On

Rationale
This strategy allows students to debrief on an activity, a reading, or a listening/viewing opportunity.  It requires students to consider multiple points and connect with what other students are thinking.

Model/ Example
Placing a question such as, “Assume that your eyes will be the last ones to check over a proof before sending it to print.  What can you check it for to assure quality?” into the Give one Get One Move On format provides a rich opportunity for students to solidify procedural ideas and share knowledge

Inference Notes Wheel

Rationale
Understanding inference is a critical reading skill that is assessed on Accuplacer and on other college placement tests.  Direct instruction on reading for inference strengthens students’ ability to perform at a higher level on these assessments.

Model/ Example
Articles published in trade magazines often contain author biases that are unstated.  Using these “content” materials as a vehicle through which to get at inference, which students associate with literary texts, is helpful in building this important reading skill.

Interactive Word Wall

Rationale
Presenting visuals to support learning is an important part of running a classroom.  By presenting current vocabulary and concepts, students will be increasingly aware of the learning they should be focusing on at a given time.

Model/ Example
In a class where students are doing graphic design and production work, word walls can be developed by students using the media and processes which they are studying.  For example doing a word wall on the Elements and Principles of Graphic Design using cut vinyl graphics motivates students and produces a more visually interesting and appealing word wall.

Knowledge Rating Guide

Rationale
Knowledge rating guides allow students to begin a literate activity strategically.  They use the strategy to build personal connections to text and to develop questions to guide reading.

Model/ Example
Knowledge Rating guides can be offered at the beginning of a unit of study or a reading assignment to set the stage for the activity.  For example, they might be useful when starting work on web design, an area with which there is widely varying student background.

QAR

Rationale
Introducing question answer relationships encourages students to more closely connect with text and explore how their own background influences understanding.  It can be particularly helpful for students who face challenges in reading for main ideas and for inference.

Model/ Example
This video shows the use of QAR with s student working on improving reading skills for an upcoming placement test.

Quick Write

Rationale
Quick writes can be used before learning to activate prior knowledge or to reinforce what has occurred in a learning activity

Model/ Example
Using a moodle based online discussion board, students use quick writes as a bell ringer activity to review a previous day’s work, to set the stage for new content or to allow consideration of the relationship between activities and lessons.
Exit tickets are used to debrief on class activities and provide the instructor with a means to evaluate learning.

Reading Process Strategies

Rationale
There are many out there! KWL (what do you know?, what do you want to get from the reading?, what did you learn?) PVR (Preview, View, Review) SQ3R (Survey, question read, recite, review).  These are the strategies that provide readers with a framework identifying things they have to do to benefit from reading. Giving students models such as these to grab onto is really helpful in getting them focused on task.  However, different students have preferences for what model or structure best suits them or suits the individual text with which they’re working.  The same is true for any exercises you can do to keep yourself on track while reading– For example with regard to previewing selections, sometimes structural approaches (Title, Headings, main idea in each paragraph) really work to activate the reader, while other situations call for more meaning based questioning (what is this reading likely to provide me with)

Model/ Example
Our class network contains a folder full of reading strategy materials.  These are used for the entire group when relevant to a particular activity, but individual student are guided to use strategies relevant to them when concerns are identified. For example, I will frequently use KWL with readers experiencing comprehension issues and PVR for students who seem to have difficulty retaining motivation through readings.

RAFT

Rationale
The acronym RAFT ties well to any engaged effort to produce communications.  It is useful in planning and checking one’s approach to a written or visual  assignment  and in reading the work of others.

Model/ Example
Students do a unit on communications theory which focuses on the Schramm model of communications.  Through this, they learn a process for analyzing the effectiveness of a communication – choice of media, overcoming barriers and interferences, etc.  The RAFT model presents a shortcut that can be used on the fly to determine the essential elements of communication within a text.

Think Aloud

Rationale
Think alouds can be connected to both academic problems, such as how to read and analyze a passage or how to approach a written answer to a question, and to practical instruction within the CTE classroom.

Model/ Example

Technical: While presenting a demonstration of a process, a think aloud clarifies the thinking that accompanies each step.


Conceptual: Providing a think aloud of a reading models for students the types of thinking that occur during making meaning from text.


Think Pair Share

Rationale
Think pair share is a strategy that increases the responsibility of individuals within a larger group to deeply interact with a question or concept.  Students first generate their own responses or ideas, then share them with peers.  The activity ends with the whole group debriefing on the findings of each smaller group.

Model/ Example
Particularly when an activity is supported by generating lists of examples or applications of a process or descriptors, TPS gets everyone involved in the conversation.  For example”
Students view two report covers on Smartboard, one symmetrical & one asymmetrical in layout. TPS –List three words or phrases you would use to describe each cover.
A list of high quality descriptive words is generated.

Two Column Notes

Rationale
Two column or Cornell notes are a classroom staple, as they provide a structure within which to generate and review effective notes on text and lectures.  The format encourages leaving space for additional marking and personal connections to the material being studied.

Models/ Examples
Provide a two column notes template when presenting information through a lecture format
Require students to submit two column notes on their reading of a textbook chapter instead of answering comprehension questions

Word Analysis

Rationale
Word analysis allows students an opportunity to see the connected nature of words and to have a ready strategy for working with unfamiliar terms in their reading. 

Model/ Example
Throughout the theory text students read words like “disintermediation,” “ontology” and “epistemology.”  During lecture/discussion, these words are highlighted and broken into roots and affixes.  Through routinely modeling this technique, students are encouraged to use it for word attack.

Word Sorts

Rationale
Word sorts allow students to organize vocabulary into meaningful categories.  This supports building connections among sets of words.
Word sorts can also be used to increase consideration other associations between words by using categories such as part of speech, connotation, etc.

Model/ Example
Students might be asked to sort the following list into whole characters vs. parts of characters

Extender
Eye
Fillet
Finial
Flag
Hairline Stroke
Leg
Ligature
Lining Figures
Logogram
Majuscule
Miniscule

Triple Entry Vocabulary

Rationale
The triple entry vocabulary journal is which is a strategic method though which to support rapid, precise vocabulary acquisition.  The elements of presenting words in context, requiring students to define terminology in their own words and the connection of terms to either mnemonic or visual devices combines multiple opportunities through which to build connection with the words.

Model/ Example
Tripple entry vocabulary journals can be used in a variety of contexts:
Individuals can be made accountable for identifying personal lists challenging vocabulary they encounter in reading.
Key terms can be provided to groups of students developed through working in the in the triple entry format.
Good ideas for ways to define or apply mnemonic or visual devices can be shared among students via the format.

Semantic Feature Analysis

Rationale
Semantic feature analysis allows students to develop and compare multiple features and characteristics over one text or several.  It is a powerful strategy for helping students manage large amounts of information.

Model/ Example
Students might use semantic feature analysis while reading articles on different printing technologies to compare features of lithography, inkjet, screen, and toner based technologies.

Critical Thinking Cue Questions

Rationale
Providing students with a tool through which to identify the nature of their thinking as they approach different questions supports their developing skills in metacognition.  This points them towards a set of questions they can eventually use to more deeply understand text.

Model/ Example
As juniors and seniors, students encounter high stakes reading tests such as the Accuplacer (college placement), ACT’s,  SAT’s and ASVAB.  During the fall semester in particular, the vocabulary of practice questions is discussed with attention to Bloom’s taxonomy.  Students are asked to consider “What is that question asking you to do?”

 

 

 

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